The purpose of programming is to develop an executable computer program that will automate performing a specific task or solving a given problem.
Programming involves activities such as analysis, design, generating algorithms and implementation of algorithms in a target programming language.
The process of programming often requires expertise in many different areas, like the application domain knowledge, specialized algorithms etc.
Programming languages are used to write programs.
A high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.
A low-level programming language is a programming language that provides little or no abstraction from a computer's instruction set architecture; commands or functions in the language map closely to processor instructions.
A low level programming language may be also referred to as either machine code or assembly language.
A compiler is a computer program that transforms source code written in a programming language into another computer language, often in a binary form, that is understood by the computer platform.
A compiler usually transforms a high-level programming language to machine code specific to a platform, so that it can then be directly executed in that platform.
An interpreter is a computer program that directly executes instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without previously compiling them into a machine language program.
Compiled languages uses a compiler to translate the source code to machine code specific to a platform, and then this compiled form is taken to any computer with that platform, and executed; compile once and execute as many times.
Interpreted languages compiled line-by-line as as that line was about to be executed.
Performance was not the best with complete interpreted languages, as, if a loop or subroutine caused certain lines to be executed multiple times, they would be recompiled every time.
Newer programming languages like Java, Python etc. uses a combination of compiler and interpreter; a compiler may output some form of intermediate bytecode (Java's .class files or Python's .pyc files), which is then executed by a bytecode interpreter (Java Virtual Machine or Python virtual machine).
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